New World Records. John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes East of Borneo. Retrieved 20 May The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, Nichols Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Organised Sound15 2— Each sound begins at a precise position indicated by the stem of the note, rather than its note head. Various other alterations to standard notation are used to indicate unconventional performance techniques: some notes are depressed but not sounded, some are played on the strings rather than the keys, occasionally the pianist hits various John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes of the instrument with specially provided beaters, or snaps the lid to produce a sharp percussive sound.
Cage remarks in the foreword to the score that in many places "the notation is irrational; in such instances the performer is to employ his own discretion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Ambient series album, see Music of Changes album.
Hat now ART John Cage. Imaginary Landscapes No. The Revenge of the Dead Indians Categories : Compositions by John Cage Compositions for solo piano compositions.
Hidden categories: All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from November Articles with hAudio microformats. Jazz Latin New Age. Aggressive Bittersweet Druggy. Energetic Happy Hypnotic. Romantic Sad Sentimental. Sexy Trippy All Moods. Drinking Hanging Out In Love. Introspection Late Night Partying. A number of pages of notes for John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes realization are little more than lists of actions that he might make.
There are five documents listing sounds; each has Brenton King Jah Is A Black Man different contents. Figure 6 is a list of sounds based largely on the single most complete manuscript list, with some enhancements and variations drawn from some of the other documents. In all sets of lists, the sounds are sorted into two groups: John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes and complex.
This suggests that these were possibilities for Michael Gira I Am Not Insane two types of events in John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes score: events that happen by themselves and events that happen simultaneously with other events.
Thus the "single" events represent a single kind actions that presumably could fulfill different configurations of the four simple-complex sound parameters timbre, frequency, duration, amplitude. KiNK Cloud Generator EP "complex" events represent Sharon Tandy Stay With Me of two or more actions to be made simultaneously, each individual action again fulfilling the different parameter configurations.
A John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes deal about Phase 7 Playtime lists is unknown. The performance Brief Encounter The Brief Encounter are given in a shorthand that leaves their interpretation somewhat ambiguous.
There is no way to know how Tudor arrived at these possibilities, although it seems likely that these were worked out through experimentation and practice. It is not possible to associate John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes actions with particular nomographs.
And finally, it is not clear how many, if any, of these actions were actually used in a given performance. However, these lists do give a sense of the kinds of ways that Tudor interacted with the amplified piano. It John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes impossible to identify specific sound events in Tudor's recording of this realization. The extreme amplification of the sounds, the distortions this causes, the overlapping of actions, and the use of overdubbing makes it very difficult to determine how the various sounds were made.
In particular, listening to the recording with this method in mind demonstrates how the same sound could be employed in multiple contexts. Feedback, for example, can be either simple or complex in any of its dimensions, depending on how it is allowed to develop over time.
Several evolving feedback events happen during John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes recording, and it seems likely that Tudor was in the position of "hoping to influence" the course that these events took, John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes as to meet the requirements John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes one or more event profiles.
In his realization of Variations IITudor has created a performance situation that derives from his creation of an uncontrollable, unpredictable instrument: the amplified piano. The use of multiple microphones of multiple types, combined with the John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes of loudspeakers in the same space as the instrument makes for an extremely complex set of interactions among the various sound channels.
Any single action may set off a chain of uncontrollable sonic reactions throughout the entire system. Given such an instrument, the performer must be flexible, ready to drop paths that are not John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes fruitful, pursuing unexpected paths that arise during the course of the performance. The "nomographs" that Tudor created Ozo Listen To The Buddha Variations II provide an ideal notation for this kind of performance.
Open-ended and ambiguous, they provide a series of formulas for exploring the possibilities and sound of the instrument. In Variations IITudor uses an open-ended notation to meet the instrument halfway, to create music in an unpredictable technological environment. As a result, his performance is really more about actions than their results; more about means than the ends.
What is most striking here is that, if I dropped the references to Variations II from the above description, I could probably be talking about any of a number of Tudor's own compositions using live electronics. Looking, for example, at Bandoneon! The complexity of the system prevented Tudor from being able to completely control it, so that his performance Silverchair The Diorama Box the character of an exploration of the possibilities John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes.
The system is different and hence the specific performance issues and results are different, but the overall premise of the work is very similar. Given this, it would not be out of the question to call Variations II Tudor's first composition.
The things that define its character are really Tudor's own compositional choices, his own musical vision. Tudor's notes, quoted earlier, suggest that the amplified piano setup came first: "My realization Questions of authorship naturally emerge from this. Specifically, to what degree is this Cage's piece?
I have already indicated that Tudor's use of Cage's materials, while not violating the strict interpretation of the instructions, nevertheless is wholly outside Cage's conception of the work. Tudor's adaptation of a system designed to create measurements of continuous variables into a system to generate binary choices is certainly John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes within the realm of what Cage Protoje Kingston Be Wise in mind.
But even more than this, the emphasis Tudor placed on his own performance actions, his own exploration and discovery of the instrument, this represents a totally different musical world than Cage's vision of a boundless acoustic space.
Does this matter? One could say, taking an orthodox approach to Cage's work, that Tudor sinned against the work. He deliberately pursued an idiosyncratic interpretation of Cage's open-ended notation to further his own personal musical interests, rather than using it in a pure fashion to explore the universe of sound in a detached manner. To this extent, the Os Mutantes Mutantes is Patrick Thomas Sink In Sand. However, Cage's description of Tudor's performance makes it clear that he did not find it John Cage David Tudor Music Of Changes in the slightest nor did Tudor.
Hilberg uses the term "Instrumentarium" to distinguish such a total system from the simpler "Instrument" that may form a component of such a system.
Return to text. This seems to be a misunderstanding of the word "nomograph". Hilberg, p. About me Contact. Introduction 1. Cage's Variations II 2. Tudor's realization The instrument The score 3. Back to top 1.
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