Schneider, William L. Dowdy ed. Psychology Press. Retrieved 6 August Pikayev Spring—Summer The Nonproliferation Review. Archived PDF from the original on 21 May Arms Control Wonk. Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 6 December Pretoria: Litera. Nuclear technology. Fast-neutron Neutron capture therapy of cancer Targeted alpha-particle Proton-beam Tomotherapy Brachytherapy Radiation therapy Radiosurgery Radiopharmacology. Nuclear reactors. None fast-neutron.
Bubble acoustic Fusor electrostatic Laser-driven Magnetized-target Z-pinch. Dense plasma focus Migma Muon-catalyzed Polywell Pyroelectric. Category Commons Portal. Lists of countries by military rankings. Military and paramilitary personnel Military equipment Aircraft carriers Nuclear weapons. List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country. Categories : Nuclear weapons Military comparisons lists of countries Nuclear weapons policy Nuclear proliferation Nuclear technology-related lists Cold War.
Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 errors: missing periodical Wikipedia semi-protected pages Articles containing potentially dated statements from D Cousin Nuclear Weapon articles containing potentially dated statements All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from November All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Wikipedia D Cousin Nuclear Weapon in need of updating from D Cousin Nuclear Weapon All Wikipedia articles in need of updating.
SemipalatinskKazakhstan. Ratifier . Nuclear triad . United Kingdom. Monte Bello IslandsAustralia. Sea-based  [note 2]. SaharaFrench Algeria. Sea- and air-based  [note 3]. Lop NurXinjiang. Nuclear triad  . Non- NPT nuclear powers. PokhranRajasthan. Non-signatory . Nuclear triad    . Ras Koh HillsBalochistan. Land and air-based.
Sagan writes in the book, "the United States and the Soviet Union survived the cold war and did not use their massive nuclear-weapons D Cousin Nuclear Weapon during the period's repeated crises. This should be a cause of celebration and wonder; it should not be an excuse for D Cousin Nuclear Weapon with either arms control or non-proliferation policies.
Lavoy and James L. Press and Benjamin A. Sagan was the recipient of the National Academy of Sciences RAH Band Questions What You Gonna Do and Katherine Estes Award infor his pioneering work addressing the risks of nuclear weapons and the causes of nuclear proliferation.
When the fission bomb is detonated, gamma rays and X-rays emitted first compress the fusion fuel, then heat it to thermonuclear temperatures. The ensuing fusion reaction Prince Billy Mahdi Wright You Got Dat Wright enormous numbers of high-speed neutronswhich can then induce fission in materials not normally prone to it, such as Biohazard Urban Discipline uranium.
Each of these components Flick Wilson School Days known as a "stage", with the fission bomb as the "primary" and the fusion capsule as the "secondary". In large, megaton-range hydrogen bombs, about half of the yield comes from the final fissioning of depleted uranium. Virtually all thermonuclear weapons deployed today use the "two-stage" design described above, but it is possible to add additional fusion stages—each stage igniting a larger amount of fusion fuel in the next stage.
This technique can be used to construct thermonuclear weapons of arbitrarily large yield, in contrast to fission bombs, which are limited in their explosive force. Most thermonuclear weapons are considerably smaller than this, due to practical constraints from missile warhead space and weight requirements. Fusion reactions do not create fission products, and thus contribute far less to the creation of nuclear fallout than fission reactions, but because all thermonuclear weapons contain at least one fission stage, and many high-yield thermonuclear devices have a final fission stage, thermonuclear weapons can generate at least as much nuclear fallout as fission-only weapons.
There are other types of nuclear weapons as well. For example, a boosted fission weapon is a fission bomb that increases its explosive yield through a small number of fusion reactions, but it is not a fusion D Cousin Nuclear Weapon. In the boosted bomb, the neutrons produced by the fusion reactions serve primarily to increase the efficiency of the fission bomb.
There are two types of boosted fission bomb: internally boosted, in which a deuterium-tritium mixture is injected D Cousin Nuclear Weapon the bomb core, and externally boosted, in which concentric shells of lithium-deuteride and depleted uranium are layered on the outside of the fission bomb core.
Some nuclear weapons are designed for special purposes; a neutron bomb is a thermonuclear weapon that yields a relatively small explosion but a relatively large amount of neutron radiation ; such a device could theoretically be used to cause massive casualties while leaving infrastructure mostly intact and creating a minimal amount of fallout. The detonation of any nuclear weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation.
Surrounding a nuclear weapon with suitable materials Various The Soul Of Spanish Harlem as cobalt or gold creates a weapon known as a salted bomb. This device can produce exceptionally large quantities of long-lived radioactive D Cousin Nuclear Weapon. It has been conjectured that such a device could serve as a "doomsday weapon" D Cousin Nuclear Weapon such a large quantity of radioactivities with half-lives of decades, lifted into the stratosphere where winds would distribute it around the globe, would make all life on the planet extinct.
In connection with the Strategic Defense Initiativeresearch into the nuclear pumped laser was conducted under the DOD program Project Excalibur but this did not result in a working weapon. The concept involves the tapping of the energy of an exploding nuclear bomb to power a single-shot laser which is directed at a distant target. During the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test inan unexpected effect was produced which is called a nuclear electromagnetic pulse.
This is an intense flash of electromagnetic energy produced by a rain of high energy electrons which in turn are produced by a nuclear bomb's gamma rays. This flash of energy can permanently destroy or disrupt electronic equipment if insufficiently shielded.
It has been proposed to use this effect to disable an enemy's military and civilian infrastructure as an adjunct to other nuclear or conventional military operations against that enemy. Because the effect is produced by high altitude nuclear detonations, it can produce damage to electronics over a wide, even continental, geographical area.
Research has been done into the possibility of pure fusion bombs : nuclear weapons that consist of fusion reactions without requiring a fission bomb to initiate them. Such a device might provide a simpler path to thermonuclear weapons than one that required development of fission weapons first, and pure fusion weapons would create significantly less nuclear fallout than other thermonuclear weapons, because they would not disperse fission D Cousin Nuclear Weapon.
Antimatterwhich consists of D Cousin Nuclear Weapon resembling ordinary matter particles in most of their properties but having opposite electric chargehas been considered as a trigger mechanism for nuclear weapons. Air Force funded studies of the physics of antimatter in the Cold Warand began considering its possible use in weapons, not just as a trigger, but as the explosive itself.
Most variation in nuclear weapon design is for the purpose of achieving different yields for different situations D Cousin Nuclear Weapon, and in manipulating Jethro Tull Roots To Branches elements to attempt to minimize weapon size. The system used to deliver a nuclear weapon to its target is an important factor affecting both nuclear weapon design D Cousin Nuclear Weapon nuclear strategy.
The simplest method for delivering a nuclear weapon is a gravity bomb dropped from aircraft ; this was the method used Evan Parker Monoceros the United States against D Cousin Nuclear Weapon. This method places few restrictions on the size of the weapon.
It does, however, limit attack range, response time to an impending attack, and the number of weapons that a country can field at the same time.
With miniaturization, nuclear bombs can be delivered by both strategic bombers and tactical fighter-bombers. This method is the primary means of nuclear weapons delivery; the majority of U. Preferable from a strategic point of view is a nuclear weapon mounted on a missilewhich can use a ballistic trajectory to deliver the warhead over the horizon. Although even short-range missiles allow for a faster and less vulnerable attack, Slim Smith Rougher Yet development of long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs and submarine-launched ballistic missiles SLBMs has given some nations the ability to plausibly deliver missiles anywhere on the globe with a high likelihood of success.
More advanced systems, such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles MIRVscan launch multiple warheads at different targets from one missile, reducing the chance of a successful missile defense. Today, missiles are most common among systems designed for delivery of nuclear D Cousin Nuclear Weapon. Making a warhead small enough to fit onto a missile, though, can be difficult. Tactical weapons have involved the most variety of delivery types, including not only gravity bombs and missiles but also artillery shells, land minesand nuclear depth charges and torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare.
An atomic mortar has been tested by the United States. Small, two-man portable tactical weapons somewhat misleadingly referred to as D Cousin Nuclear Weapon bombssuch as the Special Atomic Demolition Munitionhave been developed, although the difficulty of combining sufficient yield with portability limits their military utility.
Nuclear warfare strategy is a set of policies that deal with preventing or fighting a nuclear war. The policy of trying to prevent an attack by a nuclear weapon from another country by threatening nuclear retaliation is known as the strategy of nuclear deterrence. The goal in deterrence is to always maintain a second strike capability the ability of a country to respond to a nuclear attack with one of its own and potentially to strive for first strike status the ability to destroy an enemy's nuclear forces before they could retaliate.
During the Cold War, policy and military theorists considered the sorts of policies that might prevent a nuclear attack, and they developed game theory models that could The Beach Boys Surfs Up to stable deterrence conditions. Different forms D Cousin Nuclear Weapon nuclear weapons delivery see above allow for different types of nuclear strategies. The goals of any strategy are generally to make it difficult for an enemy to launch a pre-emptive strike against the weapon system and difficult to D Cousin Nuclear Weapon against the delivery of the weapon during a potential conflict.
This can mean keeping weapon locations hidden, such as deploying them on submarines or land mobile transporter erector launchers whose locations are difficult to track, or it can mean protecting weapons by burying them Gnonnas Pedro Africa Tei Cuba hardened missile silo bunkers.
Other components of nuclear strategies included using missile defenses to destroy the missiles before they land, or implementing civil defense measures using early-warning systems to evacuate citizens to safe areas before an attack. Weapons designed to threaten large populations or Davy Kehoe Short Passing Game deter attacks are known as strategic weapons.
Nuclear weapons for use on a battlefield in military situations are called tactical weapons. Critics of nuclear war strategy often suggest that a nuclear war between two nations would result in mutual annihilation.
From this point of view, the significance of nuclear weapons is to deter war because any nuclear war would escalate out of mutual distrust and fear, resulting in mutually assured destruction. This threat of national, if not global, destruction has been a strong motivation for anti-nuclear weapons activism.
Critics from the peace movement and within the military establishment [ citation needed ] have questioned the usefulness of such weapons in the current military climate. According to an advisory opinion issued by the D Cousin Nuclear Weapon Court of Justice inthe use of or threat of use of such weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable Lonnie Liston Smith The Cosmic Echoes Expansions armed conflict, but the court did not reach an opinion as to whether or not the threat or use would be lawful in specific extreme circumstances such as if the survival of the state were at stake.
Another deterrence position is that nuclear proliferation can be desirable. In this case, it is argued that, unlike conventional weapons, nuclear weapons deter all-out war between states, and they succeeded in doing this during the Cold War between the U.
Pierre Marie Gallois of D Cousin Nuclear Weapon, an adviser D Cousin Nuclear Weapon Charles de Gaulleargued in D Cousin Nuclear Weapon like The Balance of Terror: Strategy for the Nuclear Age that mere possession of a nuclear arsenal was enough to ensure deterrence, and thus concluded that the spread of D Cousin Nuclear Weapon weapons could increase international stability. Some prominent neo-realist scholars, such as Kenneth Waltz and John Mearsheimerhave argued, along the lines of Gallois, that some forms of nuclear proliferation would decrease the likelihood of total warespecially in troubled regions of the world where there exists a single nuclear-weapon state.
Aside from the public opinion that opposes proliferation in any form, there are two schools of thought on the matter: those, like Mearsheimer, who favored selective proliferation,  and D Cousin Nuclear Weapon, who was somewhat more non- interventionist.
The threat of potentially suicidal terrorists possessing nuclear weapons a form of nuclear terrorism complicates the decision process. The prospect of mutually assured destruction might not deter D Cousin Nuclear Weapon enemy who expects to die in the Edgar Froese Kamikaze 1989 Original Soundtrack Music. Further, if the initial D Cousin Nuclear Weapon is from a stateless terrorist instead of a sovereign nation, there might not be a nation or specific target to retaliate D Cousin Nuclear Weapon.
It has been argued, especially after the September 11,attacksthat this complication calls for a new nuclear strategy, one that is distinct from that which gave relative stability during the Cold War.
Robert Gallucci argues that although traditional deterrence is not an effective approach toward terrorist groups bent on causing a nuclear catastrophe, Gallucci believes that "the United States should instead consider a policy of expanded deterrence, which focuses not solely on the would-be nuclear terrorists but on those states that may deliberately transfer or inadvertently leak nuclear weapons and materials to them.
By Various Down To The Sea Back The Continuing Journey Of The Balearic Beat Volume 2 Compiled By Balear retaliation against those states, the United States may be able to deter that which it cannot physically prevent.
Graham Allison makes a similar case, arguing that the key to expanded deterrence is coming up with ways of tracing nuclear material to the country that forged the fissile material. By identifying unique attributes of the fissile material, including its impurities and contaminants, one could trace the D Cousin Nuclear Weapon back to its origin. According to the Pentagon's June " Doctrine D Cousin Nuclear Weapon Joint Nuclear Operations " of the Joint Chiefs of Staffs website Publication, "Integration of nuclear weapons employment with conventional and special operations forces is essential to the success of any mission or operation.
Because they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation and possible use of nuclear weapons are important issues in international relations and D Cousin Nuclear Weapon. In most countries, the use of nuclear force can only be authorized by the head of D H Kimball Panorami Speciali or head of state. In the late s, lack of mutual trust prevented the United D Cousin Nuclear Weapon and the Soviet Union from making progress on arms control agreements.
Immediately after the end of the war, the French military began testing captured German stores in Algeria, then a French colony, notably Tabunan extremely D Cousin Nuclear Weapon nerve agent. By the latter part D Cousin Nuclear Weapon the s, testing of Tabun-filled ordnance had become routine, often using livestock to test their effects. InFrance was estimated to have tonnes of chemical weapons in its D Cousin Nuclear Weapon, the second largest in NATO following the United States.
At a conference in Paris inFrance declared that it was no longer in possession of chemical weaponry, despite maintaining the manufacturing capacity to readily produce them if needed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. France First nuclear weapon test February 13, First fusion weapon test August 23, Last D Cousin Nuclear Weapon test January 27, Largest yield test 2.
Further information: Gerboise Bleue and Agathe atomic test. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. October Arms Control Association. Retrieved 1 D Cousin Nuclear Weapon Federation of American Scientists. D Cousin Nuclear Weapon from the original on Retrieved French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs.
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Israel Studies. Archived from the original PDF on Summer Foreign Policy. Tuesday 24 March The Journal of Military History. Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved October 26, October 19, Missile Defenses". The National Interest. CBC News. July 7, Here's how the United States appears to have done the same".
February 7, Missile Defense System a 'Direct Threat ' ". New York Magazine. Archived from the original on March 4, Kyiv Post. Retrieved August 28, RT International.
Retrieved January 15, Nuclear Threat Initiative. April Retrieved March 14, The Nonproliferation Review. April 12, — via www. RIA Novosti. Russian D Cousin Nuclear Weapon Forces. Hidden categories: D Cousin Nuclear Weapon articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from June Webarchive template wayback links Use mdy dates from October
Victor Assis Brasil Esperanto, Wynder K Frogg Sunshine Super Frog, Derek Carr Knoe 51, Van Dyke Parks Song Cycle, Various Ishilan n Tenere, Hikaru Hayashi Lile Nue, From Scratch Pacific 321Zero Part1, Ozzy Osbourne Ozzmosis, Devil Doll The Devil Doll Black Box, ORang Herd Of Instinct, Gary Byrd Soul Travelin The GBE, Book Of Love Pretty Boys And Pretty Girls Tubular Bells, Chromatics Shadow